I have a similar issue. I installed Mathematica 11 on this machine yesterday. It launched following the install. Today it will not launch from the Start menu. If I launch the Kernel I get an error "Wolfram Kernel for Windows has stopped working".
Wow. I had forgotten about that issue. I no longer use Maple. It was the gui that was not properly launching, not the kernel..
I did a brute force approach to shutting off services, re-booting as necessary, and restarting the services I had shut off and shutting off a new batch. I did it by nesting to zero in on the culprit. I shut off the first half to locate where the conflicting service was listed and proceed to do it by halving each cluster etc etc. Worked for me but might not for you.
In my case, Mathematica 11 ran following installation without any problem.
I am playing with Raspberry Pi 3B and had Visual Studio 2015, Windows 10 on the same box. After I installed VS 2015 Update 3, the Mathematica 11 interface would not launch. When I try to launch the kernel, I see the message "Wolfram Kernel has stopped".
I have filled out the form on the Wolfram site to move this license to another machine. I have a box that does not have VS 2015. I will try Mathematica 11 on this box and post results.
I am interested in using Mathematica with Raspberry Pi 3B and it may be useful to employ VS 2015 and Mathematica in a solution - so really hope I can resolve this.