Thanks for the suggestion. I tried Simplify[file, Trig->False], and it successfully executed. Some of the constant coefficients were combined, but not all. There were still terms with different constants multiyplying the same product of circular functions, but in other parts of the output the constants were grouped as multipliers of nested products. I will study Trig->False to make sure the math content of the output is preserved, and ascertain whether the nested products are going to be a problem. Thanks again.