# [GIF] Stereo Vision (Stereographic projection of a (24, 23)-torus knot)

Posted 1 year ago
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 Stereo VisionThis is very similar to Rise Up, though with a $(24,23)$-torus knot rather than a $(29,-5)$-torus knot. The major difference is that, rather than stereographically projecting the knot from the 3-sphere to $\mathbb{R}^3$ and then building a tube of uniform thickness around it, I'm making the uniform tube up in the 3-sphere and projecting the whole thing down. Thanks to @Henry Segerman for the suggestion.In order to accomplish this, I parametrized the boundary of a tubular neighborhood, found the formula for the projection, and then used ParametricPlot3D. In practice, this turned out to be quite computationally expensive. I will show the code at the end, but the code is basically incomprehensible without knowing where it came from, so I'll start with some intermediate steps.First, we need a stereographic projection function and a function which will output a $(p,q)$-torus knot on the Clifford torus, offset by an angle $\theta$ from the standard one: Stereo3D[{x1_, y1_, x2_, y2_}] := {x1/(1 - y2), y1/(1 - y2), x2/(1 - y2)}; pqtorus[t_, θ_, p_, q_] := ComplexExpand[Flatten[ReIm /@ (1/Sqrt[2] {E^(p I (t + θ/p)), E^(q I t)})]]; Now, the way I'm going to parametrize the boundary of a tubular neighborhood of the knot is to think of the knot as the core curve of a torus; then the second circle in the torus is the unit circle in the normal space to each point on the torus. Thinking of the knot as sitting inside $\mathbb{R}^4$, each point has a 3-dimensional normal space, namely the orthogonal complement of the tangent vector to the knot. But we only want the part of the normal space which is tangent to the sphere. Since the outward unit normal to a point $\vec{p}$ on the sphere is just $\vec{p}$ itself, this means that the normal space we want is the orthogonal complement of the plane spanned by the point itself (thought of as a vector) and the tangent vector.So then if you run Orthogonalize[NullSpace[{#, D[#, t]}] &[pqtorus[t, θ, p, q]]] and do a lot of simplification, you will eventually arrive at the following orthonormal basis for the normal space to pqtorus[t, θ, p, q]: pqNormal[t_, θ_, p_, q_] := {{( Sqrt[2] (-p Cos[p t + θ] Sin[q t] + q Cos[q t] Sin[p t + θ]))/( Sqrt[3 p^2 + q^2 + (-p^2 + q^2) Cos[2 q t]] Sign[p]), -(( Sqrt[2] (q Cos[q t] Cos[p t + θ] + p Sin[q t] Sin[p t + θ]))/( Sqrt[3 p^2 + q^2 + (-p^2 + q^2) Cos[2 q t]] Sign[p])), 0, ( Sqrt[2] Abs[p])/Sqrt[ 3 p^2 + q^2 + (-p^2 + q^2) Cos[2 q t]]}, {(-(p^2 + q^2) Cos[ q t] Cos[p t + θ] - 2 p q Sin[q t] Sin[p t + θ])/ Sqrt[3 p^4 + 4 p^2 q^2 + q^4 + (-p^4 + q^4) Cos[2 q t]], ( 2 p q Cos[p t + θ] Sin[q t] - (p^2 + q^2) Cos[q t] Sin[ p t + θ])/Sqrt[ 3 p^4 + 4 p^2 q^2 + q^4 + (-p^4 + q^4) Cos[2 q t]], 1/2 Sqrt[(3 p^2 + q^2 + (-p^2 + q^2) Cos[2 q t])/( p^2 + q^2)], ((-p^2 + q^2) Sin[2 q t])/( 2 Sqrt[3 p^4 + 4 p^2 q^2 + q^4 + (-p^4 + q^4) Cos[2 q t]])}}; Now, we get an actual parametrization for the stereographically-projected surface in 3D by running the following function: Block[{b, p = 24, q = 23}, b[t_, θ_] := pqNormal[t, θ, p, q]; Stereo3D[Cos[r] pqtorus[t, θ, p, q] + Sin[r] (Cos[s] b[t, θ][[1]] + Sin[s] b[t, θ][[2]])] ] (Of course, you can put in any integers you like for p and q). Unfortunately, just applying ParametricPlot3D to Stereo3D[Cos[r] pqtorus[t, θ, p, q] + Sin[r] (Cos[s] b[t, θ][[1]] + Sin[s] b[t, θ][[2]])] was much much slower than copy-pasting the output of the above into ParametricPlot3D, so the code below contains the entire unpleasant output of the above function.Unfortunately, we need to set PlotPoints very high to get a remotely reasonable surface, so this is far too slow to make into a Manipulate. Here's the code I used to output the above GIF: knot = With[{r = .03, viewpoint = {0, 3, 0}, cols = RGBColor /@ {"#f54123", "#0098d8", "#0b3536"}}, ParallelTable[ ParametricPlot3D[ {(-1105 Cos[r] Sqrt[4514 - 94 Cos[46 t]] Cos[24 t + θ] + 2 Sin[r] (1105 Cos[ 23 t] (Sqrt[1105] Cos[24 t + θ] Sin[s] - 23 Sqrt[2] Cos[s] Sin[24 t + θ]) + 24 Sin[23 t] (1105 Sqrt[2] Cos[s] Cos[24 t + θ] + 46 Sqrt[1105] Sin[s] Sin[24 t + θ])))/(-2210 Sqrt[ 2257 - 47 Cos[46 t]] + 53040 Sqrt[2] Cos[s] Sin[r] + 1105 Cos[r] Sqrt[4514 - 94 Cos[46 t]] Sin[23 t] - 47 Sqrt[1105] Sin[r] Sin[s] Sin[ 46 t]), -((1105 Sqrt[2] Cos[s] (-47 Cos[t + θ] + Cos[47 t + θ]) Sin[r] + 2208 Sqrt[1105] Cos[24 t + θ] Sin[r] Sin[s] Sin[23 t] + 1105 (Cos[r] Sqrt[4514 - 94 Cos[46 t]] - 2 Sqrt[1105] Cos[23 t] Sin[r] Sin[s]) Sin[ 24 t + θ])/(-2210 Sqrt[2257 - 47 Cos[46 t]] + 53040 Sqrt[2] Cos[s] Sin[r] + 1105 Cos[r] Sqrt[4514 - 94 Cos[46 t]] Sin[23 t] - 47 Sqrt[1105] Sin[r] Sin[s] Sin[46 t])), (( Cos[r] Cos[23 t])/Sqrt[2] + ( Sqrt[2257 - 47 Cos[46 t]] Sin[r] Sin[s])/(2 Sqrt[1105]))/( 1 - (Cos[r] Sin[23 t])/Sqrt[2] + ( Sin[r] (-53040 Sqrt[2] Cos[s] + 47 Sqrt[1105] Sin[s] Sin[46 t]))/( 2210 Sqrt[2257 - 47 Cos[46 t]]))}, {t, 0, 2 π}, {s, 0, 2 π}, PlotPoints -> 1000, PlotRange -> 2.7, ViewPoint -> viewpoint, PlotStyle -> White, Axes -> None, Mesh -> None, ViewAngle -> π/9, ViewVertical -> {0, 0, -1}, Boxed -> False, Background -> cols[[-1]], ImageSize -> 540, Lighting -> {{"Point", cols[[1]], {3/4, 0, 0}}, {"Point", cols[[2]], {-3/4, 0, 0}}, {"Ambient", cols[[-1]], viewpoint}}], {θ, 0., -2 π/23 - #, #}] &[-π/230] ]; Export[NotebookDirectory[] <> "knot.gif", knot, "DisplayDurations" -> 1/50, "AnimationRepetitions" -> Infinity] 
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Posted 1 year ago
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Posted 1 year ago
 If i understand correctly, you use ParametricPlot to create the 'tubes'. Why not use the Tube primitive? (replace the line of a parametric plot with a tube with something like: plot /. Line[x___] :> Tube[x,0.1] Should be faster to render?
Posted 1 year ago
 The tubes in the final animation have variable diameter, which I don't think is possible using Tube. But maybe I'm wrong?
Posted 1 year ago
 Actually, it can be done, by specifying a list of 'r' values: data = Transpose@Table[{{x, 0, 0}, 2 + Cos[x]}, {x, 0, 4 Pi, Pi/20.0}]; Graphics3D[{CapForm[None], Tube @@ data}] 
Posted 1 year ago
 Ah, interesting! So now I guess I need to try to figure out what the actual tube radii are...
 Let's just define your expression for future use: expr[r_, t_, \[Theta]_, s_] := {(-1105 Cos[r] Sqrt[4514 - 94 Cos[46 t]] Cos[ 24 t + \[Theta]] + 2 Sin[r] (1105 Cos[ 23 t] (Sqrt[1105] Cos[24 t + \[Theta]] Sin[s] - 23 Sqrt[2] Cos[s] Sin[24 t + \[Theta]]) + 24 Sin[23 t] (1105 Sqrt[2] Cos[s] Cos[24 t + \[Theta]] + 46 Sqrt[1105] Sin[s] Sin[24 t + \[Theta]])))/(-2210 Sqrt[ 2257 - 47 Cos[46 t]] + 53040 Sqrt[2] Cos[s] Sin[r] + 1105 Cos[r] Sqrt[4514 - 94 Cos[46 t]] Sin[23 t] - 47 Sqrt[1105] Sin[r] Sin[s] Sin[ 46 t]), -((1105 Sqrt[2] Cos[ s] (-47 Cos[t + \[Theta]] + Cos[47 t + \[Theta]]) Sin[r] + 2208 Sqrt[1105] Cos[24 t + \[Theta]] Sin[r] Sin[s] Sin[23 t] + 1105 (Cos[r] Sqrt[4514 - 94 Cos[46 t]] - 2 Sqrt[1105] Cos[23 t] Sin[r] Sin[s]) Sin[ 24 t + \[Theta]])/(-2210 Sqrt[2257 - 47 Cos[46 t]] + 53040 Sqrt[2] Cos[s] Sin[r] + 1105 Cos[r] Sqrt[4514 - 94 Cos[46 t]] Sin[23 t] - 47 Sqrt[1105] Sin[r] Sin[s] Sin[46 t])), ((Cos[r] Cos[23 t])/ Sqrt[2] + (Sqrt[2257 - 47 Cos[46 t]] Sin[r] Sin[s])/(2 Sqrt[ 1105]))/(1 - (Cos[r] Sin[23 t])/ Sqrt[2] + (Sin[ r] (-53040 Sqrt[2] Cos[s] + 47 Sqrt[1105] Sin[s] Sin[46 t]))/(2210 Sqrt[ 2257 - 47 Cos[46 t]]))} Two tips, not 100% sure but it seems that variation in theta is just a rotation around z. One can generate ParametricPlot3D and later dynamicaly Rotate or change the ViewPoint, should be faster. Don't have time for math now (cries internally) but random checks seem to support that claim:  ( RotationMatrix[.1, {0, 0, 1}].expr[r, t, 0., s] - expr[r, t, .1, s] ) // N // ReplaceAll[{r -> .3, s -> RandomReal[], t -> RandomReal[]}] // Chop (* {0,0,0}*)  your figure is symetric and we can use that to focus plotting only on unique part instead of sampling over whole t and s. Here is what we get: With[{r = .03, viewpoint = {0, 3, 0}, cols = RGBColor /@ {"#f54123", "#0098d8", "#0b3536"}}, static = First@ParametricPlot3D[ expr[r, t, 0, s], {t, 0, 2 \[Pi]/23.}, {s, 0, 2 \[Pi]} , PlotPoints -> 50, PlotRange -> 2.7, ViewPoint -> viewpoint, PlotStyle -> White, Mesh -> None, ViewAngle -> \[Pi]/9., ViewVertical -> {0, 0, -1}, Boxed -> False, Background -> cols[[-1]], Lighting -> {{"Point", cols[[1]], {3/4, 0, 0}}, {"Point", cols[[2]], {-3/4, 0, 0}}, {"Ambient", cols[[-1]], viewpoint}}, ImageSize -> 540]; Animate[ Graphics3D[ GeometricTransformation[ static, Table[RotationTransform[t + Dynamic@\[Theta], {0, 0, 1}], {t, 0, 2 Pi - 2 Pi/24, 2 Pi/24}]] , PlotRange -> 2.7, ViewPoint -> viewpoint, Axes -> None, ViewAngle -> \[Pi]/9, ViewVertical -> {0, 0, -1}, Boxed -> False, Background -> cols[[-1]], ImageSize -> 540] , {\[Theta], 0., -Pi/2} ] ] 
 not 100% sure but it seems that variation in theta is just a rotation around z. One can generate ParametricPlot3D and later dynamicaly Rotate or change the ViewPoint, should be faster. Yes, that's totally right. I wasn't even thinking about this, but using RotationTransform on the final image should obviously be faster than what I did. And your trick taking advantage of the symmetry and using GeometricTransformation is super clever.Thanks!