# Visualizing simultaneous iteration methods for polynomial roots

Posted 1 year ago
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 One of my longstanding research interests in numerical analysis has been the family of "simultaneous iteration" methods for finding polynomial roots. (See e.g. McNamee's book for a comprehensive survey.) Briefly put, these are modified Newton-Raphson methods that allow one to find the roots of a polynomial all at once, as opposed to finding them one at a time and "deflating".I had the idea to visualize how these algorithms gradually proceed from initial approximations to the roots, up to convergence. After a number of experiments, I settled on using domain coloring for visualization. I have found that the logarithmic derivatives of polynomials gave particularly striking plots.For this post, I have used the scaled exponential sum of degree 20: $$\frac{20!}{20^{20}}\sum_{k=0}^{20}\frac{(20z)^k}{k!}$$as the example polynomial whose roots we want to see. It is known that the zeroes of this polynomial asymptotically approach the so-called Szeg? curve as the polynomial degree goes to infinity. expPoly[x_] = With[{n = 20}, Sum[(n! (n x)^k)/(k! n^n), {k, 0, n}]]  I will now look at two of the most popular simultaneous iteration methods. The first one is the (Weierstrass-)Durand-Kerner method, $$x_i^{(k+1)}=x_i^{(k)}-\frac{p(x_i^{(k)})}{\prod\limits_{j\neq i} (x_i^{(k)}-x_j^{(k)})},\qquad i=1\dots n;\; k=0,1,\dots$$which is (typically) quadratically convergent. (Note that in simultaneous iteration methods, the polynomials are always assumed to be monic (i.e., unit leading coefficient).)Implementing the iteration is easy using FixedPointList[]. As is customary with these methods, we use as a starting approximation points equispaced around the unit circle, and slightly rotated: ptsdk = FixedPointList[# - expPoly[#]/Table[Apply[Times, #[[k]] - Delete[#, k]], {k, Length[#]}] &, N[Exp[2 ? I Range[0, 19]/20 - I ?/40]], 40, SameTest -> (EuclideanDistance[##] < 1.*^-6 &)]; I use a loose convergence criterion that is good enough for visualization purposes.For the domain coloring plot, I will use a slightly modified version of the DLMF color scheme, based on an idea of Quilez. DLMFPhaseColor[u_, s_:1, b_:1] := Module[{rgb}, rgb = Clip[{1, -1, -1} Abs[{8, 4, 8} Mod[u/(2 ?), 1] - {9, 3, 11}/2] + {-3, 3, 5}/2, {0, 1}]; rgb = (3 - 2 rgb) rgb^2; Apply[RGBColor, b (1 + s (rgb - 1))]] I then use a simplified version of code originally written by user Heike on Mathematica Stack Exchange: dcdk = RegionPlot[True, {x, -9/8, 9/8}, {y, -9/8, 9/8}, ColorFunction -> Function[{x, y}, DLMFPhaseColor[Arg[Total[1/(x + I y - #)]]]], ColorFunctionScaling -> False, Frame -> False, PlotPoints -> 405] & /@ ptsdk; (This takes some time, due to the high PlotPoints setting.)We can now see an animation: ListAnimate[dcdk] The other method I will be looking at in this post is the (typically) cubically convergent Ehrlich-Aberth(-Maehly) method, $$x_i^{(k+1)}=x_i^{(k)}-\frac{\tfrac{p(x_i^{(k)})}{p^\prime(x_i^{(k)})}}{1-\tfrac{p(x_i^{(k)})}{p^\prime(x_i^{(k)})}\sum\limits_{j\neq i} \tfrac1{x_i^{(k)}-x_j^{(k)}}},\qquad i=1\dots n;\; k=0,1,\dots$$which is also one of the methods available in Mathematica's NSolve[]/NRoots[].Unfortunately, I have no way to get the iterates generated by NSolve[], so I had to reimplement the method myself. We can use essentially the same code as was used for Durand-Kerner, with a few changes: ptsea = FixedPointList[With[{ld = expPoly[#]/expPoly'[#]}, # - ld/(1 - ld Table[Tr[1/(#[[k]] - Delete[#, k])], {k, Length[#]}])] &, N[Exp[2 ? I Range[0, 19]/20 - I ?/40]], 40, SameTest -> (EuclideanDistance[##] < 1.*^-6 &)]; dcea = RegionPlot[True, {x, -9/8, 9/8}, {y, -9/8, 9/8}, ColorFunction -> Function[{x, y}, DLMFPhaseColor[Arg[Total[1/(x + I y - #)]]]], ColorFunctionScaling -> False, Frame -> False, PlotPoints -> 405] & /@ ptsea; ListAnimate[dcea] It would be interesting to use this visualization technique on other polynomials with interesting root structure, as well as other simultaneous iteration methods. Answer
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Posted 1 year ago - Congratulations! This post is now a Staff Pick as distinguished by a badge on your profile! Thank you, keep it coming, and consider contributing your work to the The Notebook Archive! Answer
Posted 1 year ago
 Postscript: people using version 12 should now be able to use the new function ComplexPlot[] to visualize the iterations instead of the functions I wrote. Answer
Posted 1 year ago
 Hi J.M. Tanx for contributing your work. I have learned a lot from it. sasan Answer