OK. I tried this and it works.
Not exactly 'easy' or intuitive. There should be a menu command to copy the stylesheet into the notebook without having to muck around opening the stylesheet from the User library and then pasting it.
If I recall correctly, there used to be such a command.
For my purposes, it would be just as easy to make a notebook template with the styles I want and open it when I needed a new notebook. In OS X, there is a way to make a file into 'stationery'.
Or, I could just use one of the other pre-defined stylesheets and hope that there will be more choice in fonts supplied with Mathematica. Many of the stylesheets other than the default seem to use Times and Helvetica exclusively. That is acceptable, and probably better than the choice for the default (Arial and Gill Sans). Interestingly, the style sheet for this year's WTC presentations uses Helvetica for text, and a mix of Arial, Gill Sans, and Helvetica for titles, sections, etc. Once could do a decent job making a stylesheet with just Helvetica and vary the thickness a bit (or use Helvetica neue, which has more choices.)
Something odd about the style sheet. In the Stylesheet window, the font is Times, but in the document itself, the font is Courier. The same thing happens with the default stylesheet. I will discuss this with tech support. (probably a bug)